The Alexandria-based church initially used Greek, and it was not until the late 2nd century that both the liturgy and the scriptures were translated into three native languages. Many Messianic and syncretistic sections have also formed across the continent including the Nigerian Aladura churches and the Nazareth Baptist Church situated in South Africa. By the end of the second century, Carthage had produced a pope (Victor I). Some of his beliefs about the transmigration of souls and universal reconciliation (or apokatastasis, a belief that all men and women, and even Lucifer, would ultimately be saved), were declared heretical in 553 C.E., and he was posthumously excommunicated by the Council of Constantinople in 453 C.E. (There was also the problem of increasing ethnic and social tensions which helped fractured the empire into what would become the Byzantium and Holy Roman Empire of … Factors Which Led to the Spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire Christianity was not born in a vacumn. At the turn of the 20th century, Christianity was virtually nonexistent in many parts of Africa but is now the faith of the majority. This was due in large part because the missionaries used the native culture to raise up indigenous leaders to lead the churches. Alexandria was also home to the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Old Testament which traditional has it was created on the orders of Ptolemy II for the use of the large population of Alexandrian Jews. However, Christianity in most of the areas of North Africa was wiped out with the advent of Islam. One center was in Cyrenaica, within reach of the influence of Alexandria. The term “North Africa”, in classical and early medieval times, meant essentially Proconsular Africa. They were followed in turn by the Methodists and the Roman Catholics. Alistair Boddy-Evans is a teacher and African history scholar with more than 25 years of experience. A new attempt to spread Christianity was made when the Church Missionary Society (CMS) arrived from Britain in 1821. It is believed that African … The ancient East African kingdom of Aksum gradually adopted Christianity from the early- to mid-fourth-century reign of Ezana onwards. 2. The Montanists were harsh moralists, but even they proved to lax for Tertullian in the end, and he founded his own sect a few years before 220 C.E. Titus Flavius Clemens (150--211/215 C.E. Some religious scholars believe that Christianity was introduced to Africans by way of the Egyptian city of Alexandria. The reason why so many Africans are turning to Christianity is attributed to a number of factors include disillusionment with political systems and a natural attraction to religious worship. The oldest of these churches is the Tewahedo which enjoys a membership of around 45 to 50 million people. The religion also grew in northwestern Africa where the churches maintained links with the Church of Rome. AICs have also demonstrated a strong missionary tendency in that most of the spread of Christianity throughout Africa in the 20 th century can be attributed to African Independent Churches. Historical records, which come partially from a narrative believed to have been written by Perpetua herself, describe in detail the ordeal leading up to their death in the arena—wounded by beasts and put to the sword. And yet within 25 years Uganda had become one of the most successful mission fields in the whole of Africa. (There was also the problem of increasing ethnic and social tensions which helped fractured the empire into what would become the Byzantium and Holy Roman Empire of medieval times.). Nigeria has particularly witnessed rapid growth in Christianity with numerous African-Christian denominations established across the nation. A strange historical significance seems to surround the Middle East. Traditional Gods were still worshipped, such as the Phonecian Ba'al Hammon (equivalent to Saturn) and Ba'al Tanit (a goddess of fertility) in Africa Proconsuaris and Ancient Egyptian beliefs of Isis, Osiris, and Horus. The faith spread as neighbors saw the lives of the believers close-up, on a daily basis. -Trade between Africa and Mesopotamia helped in the spread of iron working.-Migrating Bantus spread the skill.-Travelers and messengers spread the art by giving or receiving gifts of iron.-It was spread through warfare. Once it was introduced to Africa, Christianity slowly spread from Alexandria to Ethiopia. The well-known narrative of the late Roman church-historian Rufinus relates a top-down process of conversion, starting with the ruler himself. Joshua Takes Steps Against The Spread Of Ebola Nevertheless, understanding the social, cultural, and religious factors that influenced the spread of the faith doesn’t make the ultimate cause of the movement any less supernatural in nature. In 1900, nine million Christians lived in Africa compared to the 380 million in 2000. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity include Tertullian, Perpetua, Felicity, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Cyprian, Athanasius and Augustine of Hippo. However, the colonisation of sub-Saharan Africa and the New World provided new outlets for the spread of Christianity. Curiously, Tertullian extolled martyrdom, but is recorded of dying naturally (often quoted as his 'three score and ten'); espoused celibacy, but was married; and wrote copiously, but criticized classical scholarship. Christianity enjoys widespread popularity in Africa particularly in the nations situated in the Southeast, Southern, and Central regions of the continent. Even the idea of holy trinity could be related to various godly triads which were taken to be three aspects of a single deity. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already … Philip encountered a man from Ethiopia on a road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. Origen was a prolific writer, had the ear of Roman royalty, and succeeded Clement of Alexandria as head of the School of Alexandria. Any discussion of Christianity in Uganda–the creation of colonialism at the end of the 19th Century–must begin with Bu… Early Christianity was primarily an urban faith, establishing itself in the city centers of the Roman Empire. This explains why the death of one missionary leader would stop the whole of that missionary group from continuing with its work. Christianity found its way to Sudan in the 1st century as well, and the region's Nubian churches had links to those in Egypt. Points Rubric Notes A: Thesis/Claim (0 – 1) Despite those efforts, the spread of Christianity was very slow. One person who brought Christianity to an African is Philip, as recounted in Acts 8:26–40. The most significant record of Christian martyrdom, however, is that of March 203, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus (145--211 C.E., ruled 193--211), when Perpetua, a 22 year old noble, and Felicity, whom she enslaved, were martyred in Carthage (now a suburb of Tunis, Tunisia). PIOneer mission in Africa greatly discouraged other volunteers who were wilting to come to Africa and carry out missionary work. Philip encountered a man from Ethiopia on a road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. Octavian (as he was then known, had defeated Mark Anthony and deposed Queen Cleopatra VII in 30 B.C.E. 1. G. Mokhtar, James Currey, 1990. Emperor Augustus (63 B.C.E.--14 C.E.) Its Fertile Crescent contained one of the earliest culture hearths where civilization developed. Tertullian, the “Father of Latin Christianity,” had labored in North Africa during the latter years of the second century and the early years of the third. E., different factors led to the emergence and spread of new religions and belief systems, such as Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity. Urbanization would prove to be a key factor in the development of North African Christianity. By Joseph Kiprop on September 21 2017 in Society. Two factors that could inhibit the further spread of Christianity are:Faith. Tertullian converted to Christianity in Rome during his twenties, but it was not until his return to Carthage that his strengths as a teacher and defender of Christian beliefs were recognized. However, we must distinguish between two obvious centers in the first century of the preaching of Christianity on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Some religious scholars believe that Christianity was introduced to Africans by way of the Egyptian city of Alexandria. Alexandria considered the second city after Rome, had 150,000 inhabitants by the third century. According to tradition, the evangelist Mark was a native Jew of Cyrene, who came to Alexandria by way of the Pentapolis and, afte… Answers. Outside of the cities, life was less influenced by Roman culture. It had a mostly friendly rivalry with the School of Antioch which was based around a literal interpretation of the Bible. The positive intentions of Christianity were however overshadowed by the ills of the slave trade and commercial exploitation. African Christianity thus blossomed from the seeds planted by western Missionaries, and it developed its cultural identity. It has served as the birth place for many cultures and religions. • General History of Africa Volume 2: Ancient Civilizations of Africa (Unesco General History of Africa) ed. This agitation resulted in both reforms and the sprouting of "African Initiated Churches." Factors such as educational, spiritual, social, cultural, economic, political, psychological, historical, geographical, etc., are from amongst the factors contributing to the widespread and acceptance of Islam b… ), aka Clement of Alexandria, was a Hellenistic theologian and the first president of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. One person who brought Christianity to an African is Philip, as recounted in Acts 8:26–40. The Biblical Scholar Jerome (347--420 C.E.) 1993-10-01 00:00:00 . It is no coincidence that Islam has become the second largest and the fastest growing religion in the world (Esposito 2002:1). The report, corroborated by the adoption of Christian symbolism on Ezana’s late coinage, and monotheistic as … The Nile Valley was feeding Rome. There were echoes of traditional religions to be found in Christianity which also proved key in the spread of the new religion. Explain the factors involved in the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire both before and after the conversion of Constantine. remarked that he added Egypt (Aegyptus) to the empire. Since then, Africa has become a region predominantly inhabited by Christians and Muslims. It is recorded that in 180 C.E. It is believed that Mark the Evangelist brought Christianity from Jerusalem to Alexandria in the year 43 before becoming the first bishop to serve the Alexandria Orthodox Church. A. By the middle of the first century, churches had been established in northern African by early converts to Christianity. The Spread of Christianity and Factors that Contributed to the Political and Religious Separation of the Early Church Christianity is a proselytising religion, and many missionaries are spread around the word preaching to the unconverted. 5 Factors That Led To The Spread Of Islam In Nigeria - Religion - Nairaland. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Religion / 5 Factors That Led To The Spread Of Islam In Nigeria (13211 Views) 136 Christians Convert To Islam In Kwara State / Factors That Can Lead To Sexual Impurity / T.B. Origen, head of the School of Alexandria in the early third century, is also noted for compiling a comparison of six translations of the old testament—the Hexapla. However, Emperor Decius ordered the persecution of the adherents of Christianity in mid-3rd century forcing Christians to seek refuge in the desert. There has been a notable growth in the population of Christians residing in Africa while on the other hand observance of traditional African religions has been on a decline. canals had been refreshed and agriculture was booming from improved irrigation. In North Africa, however, Christianity was not merely eclipsed, it was supplanted. Tertullian became a member of the heretical and charismatic Montanistic order around 210 CE, given to fasting and the resultant experience of spiritual bliss and prophetic visitations. Missionaries first arrived at the court of Kabaka Muteesa in 1877, almost a century after the missionary impetus from Europe had begun. Christianity arrived in Africa in the late 1st or early 2nd century AD, making these Christian communities some of the earliest in the world. records that Tertullian was ordained as a priest, but this has been challenged by Catholic scholars. to annex what had been the Ptolemaic Kingdom. By the time of Emperor Claudius (10 B.C.E.--45 C.E.) The Main Factors in the Spread of Islam. 1. Almurabids who intended to open the cities of Andulus but later changed their mission to the activities of extending Islam in to West Africa. His most important surviving work is the trilogy Protreptikos ('Exhortation'), Paidagogos ('The Instructor'), and the Stromateis ('Miscellanies') which considered and compared the role of myth and allegory in ancient Greece and contemporary Christianity. King Ezana of the Ethiopian/Eritrean Kingdom of Aksum gave Christianity official status and facilitated the establishment of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. As a Christian, I believe that God’s historical providence directed the events that led to Christianity’s development. The Evangelical Revival, in the late 18th century, started sending missionaries to Africa. 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