Dec 6, 2013 - Byzantine Kataphraktoi - 11th C ? [8] By 1412 BC the settlement had become an important center of the Mycenaean civilization and the Acropolis was the site of a major Mycenaean fortress whose remains can be recognised from sections of the characteristic Cyclopean walls. In the worst disaster since the days of Hannibal the Roman army and the emperor Valens were wiped o…, Theodosius I or Theodosius the Great, 346?–395, Roman emperor of the East (379–95) and emperor of the West (394–95), son of Theodosius, the general o…, Sigismund (1368-1437) was king of Hungary from 1385 to 1437, Holy Roman emperor from 1411 to 1437, and king of Bohemia from 1420 to 1437. Irene of Athens was one of the most ruthless, ambitious, and forceful women ever to hold a throne and, in her determination to prevent her son from reigning and her boldness in daring to become the first woman ever to hold the Roman throne, she ranks with Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt and Catherine the Great as a profound breaker with dynastic tradition. Her body was moved to the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople later in the 9th century. The first woman ever to hold the throne of the Roman Caesars in her own right, she is also known as Irene Sarantapechaina and was a Byzantine Empress from 797 to 802. There were several sources for the anti-image movement—iconoclasm or "image-smashing," as it came to be known. Each of these women's stories is a great one, wrought with controversy and struggle, but Irene's story is one that is most commonly forgotten. Greater Athens has an area of 165 square miles (427 square km). With the monks already inimical to him because of his adulterous marriage, he stood as a likely candidate around which the iconoclastic party, now in disarray, might conceivably rally and find a friend and supporter. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. For the first three years of his reign, the abandoned monasteries and nunneries began to fill again, and iconophile monks held high positions in the court. Byzantine empress, Isaurian Dynasty, Pala D'oro, Venice are important aspects of Irene of Athens life. Their son was born just a little over a year after the marriage. 840, who married Byzantine emperor Michael II of Amorion). Irene signed the Synod's decree with her own hand. ." The Ecumenical Council may have been another attempt. The soldiers broke up the council and departed. The overthrow of Constantine VI and seizure of the throne by Irene had grave repercussions that indirectly altered the history of the Western world. The army was demoralized and alienated by her conduct of affairs; the Arabs invaded Asia Minor as far as Ephesus and ravaged the frontier provinces until peace was obtained by the payment of a large tribute to the caliph, Harun al-Rashid. Birthplace : Athens, Greek Empire The Athens Urban Area (Greater Athens and Greater Piraeus) extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 (in 2011) over an area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi). Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. But part of the army had gone to Cyprus to stave off an Arab attack, and when it returned it helped Constantine to power. There may have been many reasons: a sensed need to align the imperial house more closely with mainland Greece rather than the East; a chance to gain firmer control over an unruly area; a gesture of reconciliation toward the empire's icon-loving (iconophile) inhabitants; or even that Leo, who was sickly, would not likely become emperor, so it would have mattered little who his wife was. Empress Irene and the Silk Trade (752-803 CE). Athens has been inhabited from Neolithic times, possibly from the end of the 4th millennium BC, or nearly 5,000 years. Thereafter, until its extinction by Napoleon in 1806, the term "Roman Empire" was used throughout Western Europe to refer to the holdings of the Holy Roman Emperor, whereas, for as long as it lasted (i.e., until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453), Europeans would refer to the Byzantine state—to the dismay and outrage of its rulers—as the "Empire of the Greeks.". In an elaborate charade, he lied about an attempted coup by the generals and told the palace guards that Irene had proclaimed him emperor in order to ward off the others. The first attempt by Irene to convoke the council occurred in Constantinople on May 31, 786, when a conclave attended by the papal delegates was convened in the Church of the Holy Apostles. Also, to open the posts of this year, certainly later than planned, we begin with the Byzantine Empress Irene of Athens and how important she was to the Orthodox Eastern Church. About the time Irene of Athens was born, Constantine V had begun his persecution of the "image worshippers," torturing and martyring monks and nuns, and condoning acts of public humiliation by his armies. Whether it was because she was a murderess or, more likely, because she was a woman, the pope and other leaders of the Church did not consider appealing to Irene of Athens for judgment. Irene managed the council in absentia but when it was clear that her campaign for the restoration of iconolatry had been successful, the attending prelates were brought to Constantinople for the eighth and last session which was held in the capital. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. By 1412 BC, the settlement had become an important center of the Mycenaean civilization and the Acropolis was the site of a major Mycenaean fortress whose remains can be recognised from sections of the characteristic Cyclopean walls. A tutor was left behind to teach Rotrude Greek and "the customs of the Roman Empire." 771), emperor of Byzantium (r. 780–797). In any case, the rupture of the proposed union does not appear to have overly disturbed the empress, who, increasingly ambitious, had good reason not to want a daughter-in-law of such eminent rank. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952. In dynastic matters, Irene moved as shrewdly as she had done in ecclesiastical affairs. The ecclesiastical gathering was then reconvened in the nearby city of Nicaea, where the First Ecumenical Council had been held nearly 500 years before. Hussey, J.M., ed. Noted for her liberality, her freeing of prisoners and, above all, for her convening of the Second Council of Nicaea, and for her efforts to restore the veneration of sacred images, Irene was popular among the people despite the irregularity of her conduct of the affairs of state. With Irene on the throne, whatever the circumstances that brought her there, the Pope could legitimately consider the Roman throne to be legally vacant. Powerful Facts About Empress Irene, The Byzantine Rebel Beauty, brains, and an iron will: Irene of Athens used all of these to stay in power in the cut-throat world of the Byzantine Empire. In planning their restoration of icon-worship in the Empire, Irene and her advisors moved with caution, shrewdly awaiting the death of the iconoclastic Paul IV, patriarch of the Imperial Church, before appointing as his replacement the learned Tarasius (784-806). Important Achievements: Created the Justinian Code wich is a set of laws that influence modern laws. Kaiser Konstantin VI. (December 22, 2020). She had her name put first on imperial documents. Empress Irene of Athens was the first female ruler of the Byzantine Empire. He agreed if she would hand over the imperial treasury to him. She replaced the generals with her favorites, who were also iconophiles, and started the process whereby she slowly lost the support of the army. They are considered the most important person in history born with the … Encyclopedia.com. Irene of Athens has been listed as a level-5 vital article in an unknown topic. In 801, Irene waived taxes and reduced import and export duties, which won her great support from the people. Irene could now play on negative opinion against Constantine and plot to depose him. The Senate, the…, Irene, Chionia, and Agape of Thessalonica (d. 304), https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/irene-athens-c-752-803. Still, the army remained a problem, and the generals were ready to capitalize on it. But things had changed since she had first assumed power in 780. She then exiled them and their families from the city and forced them to return to their native towns. It could have been the age-old desire to reunite the empire. "Alexius was not yet, or very slightly,…, Vespasian Prior to becoming empress regnant, Irene was empress consort from 775 to 780, and empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. Constantine would die shortly after his mutilation, which was probably conducted in such a way as to achieve this result. Hey there, I have discovered recently that Irene of Athenes, Empress of the Byzantine Empire from 797 to 802. Constantine seems to have been distressed over this, since he was in love with Rotrude. Enemies, posing as friends, persuaded her that her favorite eunuch intended to seize power for himself. Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Charlemagne agreed. Nov 9, 2014 - Captain Janeway was referred to as "Sir," despite clearly not being a man. Another complication is that Irene may have been given the name Irene only when she married, and Irene means "peace.". "Irene of Athens (c. 752–803) Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Her dealings with Charlemagne almost united the Eastern and Western empires and might have had a profound effect on the subsequent history of East and West relations. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988. She was a member of the noble Greek Sarantapechos family, which had significant political influence in central mainland Greece. Irene of Athens was the first woman to be sole ruler (Autokrator) of the Byzantine empire. Charlemagne was astute enough to realize, of course, that Irene's reign would one day end and that he would eventually be faced with an emperor legitimate in Byzantine eyes. Thus, it was on Christmas Day, in the year 800, during a visit of Charlemagne to Rome that the pope—undoubtedly with the king's prior knowledge and acquiescence—placed on his head an imperial crown, bestowing upon Charlemagne the title "Holy Roman Emperor" and thereby recognizing his vast realm as the restoration of the Roman Empire in the West. As the chronicler Theophanes represents it, Nicephorus lied his way through several situations in the next few days and fooled everyone into making him emperor. A well-born and highly educated court prelate, skilled in diplomacy, Tarasius was head of the imperial chancellery and de facto prime minister of the Empire. But Irene would not yield the reins. Being now 17 years old, he felt he should begin to assume more of the imperial duties. For, five years later, Constantine [would be] blinded by his own mother on a Saturday of the same month.". Reprint. dispersed by hostile troops recruited by Constantine VI to guard the capital and the papal representatives returned to Sicily, but Irene shrewdly had Constantine's troops shipped to Asia on the pretext of their being sent on a campaign against the Arabs. To curry favor with the masses, Irene reduced some taxes, especially in the capital, and abolished others, moves that were to prove ruinous coupled with the ravages experienced during the Arab invasion. Name variations: Maria of Armenia. The Western Church supported the use of images. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1969. The Synod restored the icons and renounced those who had practiced iconoclasm. Leo's policy initiated the first wave of iconoclasm in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and it met with strong resistance in Irene's hometown, which tried to break away from the empire along with the rest of Greece. Turtledove, Harry, trans. She was the first woman to be rule the Byzantine Empire. Once again, Leo IV's brothers conspired for a chance at the throne; once again, they were thwarted. Irene of Athens was one of the most ruthless, ambitious, and forceful women ever to hold a throne and, in her determination to prevent her son from reigning and her boldness in daring to become the first woman ever to hold the Roman throne, she ranks with Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt and Catherine the Great as a profound breaker with dynastic tradition. ." 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